Sabtu, 08 Desember 2012

Generic Text:                                         Procedur...

Report Text:
:                                         Procedure Text A. Purpose A procedure text is defined as a text used to describe how som...

Procedure Text
A. Purpose
A procedure text is defined as a text used to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps. Basically a procedure text is a part of our daily life. It tells us how something is done through steps or actions. It is often used, even though we rarely realize it. The example is when we follow the instruction of a recipe.

B. Generic Structure
The Generic structure of a procedure text consists of three parts. They are:
1.      Goal/aim
It contains the purpose of the text.
2.      Materials or Ingredients
It contains of the materials that used in the process.
3.      Steps
They contains of the actions must be taken to achieve the goal/ a series steps oriented to achieving the goal.
C. Language Features
There are some language features used in Procedure texts, such as:
1.    Use Imperative sentence
An imperative sentence is a type of sentences that gives advice or expresses request or command.
The examples of imperative sentences are:
Cut a carrot into pieces!
Don’t put some salt!
2.    Use Action verbs
An action verb is a verb that shows the performance of an action. It uses a dynamic verb that shows something happens.
The examples of action verbs are: make, put, mix, pour, etc.
Pour some flour into mixer.
Mix chocolate with milk or fruit.
3.  Use Connective/conjunction
Connective/conjunction is a word or phrase that links clauses or sentences. The examples of connective are while, then, and, etc.
4.   Use adverbial of sequence
An adverbial is a word, phrase or clause that performs the function of an adverb. The example of adverbial of sequences are first, second, the last etc.
5.  Use simple present tense
Simple present tense is a tense which express the activity in the present.
The example of simple present tense is:
Pour it into the water. It makes the jelly more elastic.

Example of a procedure text
How to Make a Diamond Kite
1. Cord or thin garden twin (string)
2. Tape or glue
3. 1 sheet of strong paper (102cm x 102 cm)
4. 2 strong and straight wooden stick of bamboo (90 cm x 102 cm)
5. Markers paint or crayon to decorate your kite
1.    Make across with the two sticks. The shorter stick placed horizontally across the longer stick. Make sure that both sides of the across piece are equal in width.
2.    Tie the two sticks together with the string in such a way as to make sure that they are right angels to each other. A good way to ensure that the joint is strong to put a dab of glue to stick it in place.
3.    Cut a notch at each and of both sticks. Make it deep enough for the type of string you are using to fit in to. Cut a piece of string long enough to stretch all around the kite frame. Make o loop in the top notch and fasten it by wrapping the string around the stick. Stretch the string through the notch at the one end of the cross-piece and make another loop at the bottom. Finished by wrapping the string a few times around the top of the stick and cutting off what be taut but not so tight as to wrap the stick.
4.    Lay the sail material flat and place the stick frame face down on top. Cut around it, leaving about 2-3 cm for a margin. Fold these edges over the string frame and tape or glue it down so that the material is tight.
5.    Cut a piece of string about 122 cm long. Tie one end to the loop at the other end of the string and the other end to loop at the bottom tie another small loop in the string just above the intersection of the two cross pieces. This will be kite’s bridle, the string to which the flying line is attached.
6.    Make a tail by tying a small ribbon roughly every 10 cm along the length of string. Attach the tail to the loop at the bottom of the kite.
7.    Decorate your kite as beautiful as you want. Finally, your kite is ready to fly.

Recount Text
A. Purpose
            Recount is a reconstruction of something happened in the past. It is the unfolding sequence of events over time and the purpose is to tell what happened. Recounts begin with by telling the reader who was involved, what happened where this event took place and when it happened.  The sequence of event is then described in some sort of order, for instance a time order (Seaton, 2007). A recount has a title, which summarizes the text.
B. Generic structures    
The generic structure of a recount consists of three parts. They are:
1.      The setting or orientation
The setting or orientation is the background information answering who, when, where and why. It is also where you give an outline of what you are writing about.
2.      Events
Events are where you write about the things that happened and are identified and described in chronological order.
3.      Conclusion
The conclusion expresses a personal opinion regarding the events described.
C. Language Features
1.      A recount text tells about past experiences. It uses past tenses; such as simple past, past perfect, past continuous, past perfect continuous tenses.
2.      A recount text describes events. It uses action verbs and adverbs.
3.      A recount text describes events in a chronological order. It uses linking word to link the events, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first.
4.      The lexicogrammatical features of recount are focus on specific participants, use of past tense, use of material processes, circumstances of time and place, and focus on temporal sequence.

My Adolescence

I had my adolescence when I was thirteen.
It started with acne that showed up on my face. It was very annoying. It lowered my self-esteem and I was embarrassed to come out of my house and play with friends.
Fortunately, my Mum gave me a good medicine. In three weeks, the acnes started to vanish although those showed some black spots in my face.
That was my bad experience with adolescence, though there were still lots of good experience too.

Visiting Bali
There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The first one was to Singaraja, the second was to Ubud.
On the day of the tour, he was ready. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousand people. It is a busy but quiet town. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta.
The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The first stop was at Batubulan, a center of stone sculpture. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. The next stop was Celuk, a center for silversmiths and golden smiths. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Mass is a tourist center.
My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour, all his day was spent on the beach. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. He was quiet satisfied.


                              Narrative Text
A.  Purpose
A narrative text is a that is aimed to entertain, amuse, teach a lesson or moral and explain something or make a comment .
B.  Generic Structure
Generic structure of a narrative text consists of:
·         Orientation            : introduces the participants and the setting.
·         Complication         : a crisis or problem arises.
·         Resolution             : the crisis or problem is solved
·         Coda                    : a moral or a message (optional)
C. Language Features
  • ·         A narrative text focuses on specific participants
  • ·         A narrative text uses of action verbs
  • ·         A narrative text uses of past tense
  • ·         A narrative text extensively uses of adjectives and adverbs
  • ·         A narrative text uses of connectors of time
Examples of Narrative Text
                                                        Legend of Lake Toba
        Once upon a time, there was a man who was living in north Sumatra. He lived in a simple hut in a farming field. The did some gardening and fishing for his daily life.
         One day, while the man was do fishing, he caught a big golden fish in his trap. It was the biggest catch which he ever had in his life. Surprisingly, this fish turned into a beautiful princess. He felt in love with her and proposed her to be his wife. She said; "Yes, but you have to promise not to tell anyone about the secret that I was once a fish, otherwise there will be a huge disaster". The man made the deal and they got married, lived happily and had a daughter.
         Few years later, this daughter would help bringing lunch to her father out in the fields. One day, his daughter was so hungry and she ate his father’s lunch. Unfortunately, he found out and got furious, and shouted; “You damned daughter of a fish”. The daughter ran home and asked her mother. The mother started crying, felt sad that her husband had broke his promise.
           Then she told her daughter to run up the hills because a huge disaster was about to come. When her daughter left, she prayed. Soon there was a big earthquake followed by non-stop pouring rain. The whole area got flooded and became Toba Lake. She turned into a fish again and the man became the island of Samosir.

                                              Descriptive text
The purpose of a descriptive text is to describe a person, place or thing particularly . It describes the characteristic of a person, animal, place or thing specifically, so that the readers will be able to imagine what kind of a person, animal, place or thing that is described.   
B.  Generic Structure
Generic structure of a descriptive text consists of two elements, they are:
1.      Identification
Identification is an element of a descriptive text which contains about topic and it identities the phenomenon that will be described.
2.      Description
It describes the parts, qualities and characteristics of the topic.
C.Language Features
1.      It uses simple present tense.
2.      It uses various adjectives for describing, numbering and classifying the object.
Examples: tow strong legs, sharp white fangs, etc.
3.      It uses relating verbs to give information about the subject.
Examples: my mum is really cool, it has very thick fur, etc.
4.      It uses adverbs to give additional information about the characteristic of the object.
Example: it is extremely high.
5.      It uses comparatives (-er), superlatives (-est) and the specific forms of comparatives and superlatives.
                                                         Borobudur Temple

               Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
             Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular.
           Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
          Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

Report Text

                                                            REPORT TEXT
Definition of a Report Text
A report text is a type of document written by someone or group of people to announce the result of an investigation or announce something to the proper authorities. The information given in a report text is very general information.
Social Function of a Report Text
The purpose of a report text is to present information about something generally. It generally describes the way things are with reference to arrange of natural, manmade and social phenomenon in our environment, such as: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, cultures, transportations, and so on .

The General Characteristics of a Report Text
The characteristics of a report text can be seen from its generic structures and linguistic features. Those characteristics will be explained below.

A. Generic structures
• Title
A title of a report text indicates the topic of the text and it is a very general thing.
• General Classification
A general classification is a part that state classification of general aspect of things, such as: animals, public places, plants, etc. It will be discussed in general.
• Description
This part gives describing of the things which will be discussed in detail, in terms of: parts (and their function), qualities, habits and behavior.

B. Linguistic features
• Focus on generic participant.
A report text always introduces group or general aspect and focus on general nouns, such as: ‘Platypus’, ‘Bees’, etc.
• A report text uses relating verb and action verb, for example:
Relating verb : Reptiles are scalyanimal,etc.
Action verb : Birds fly in the sky, etc.
• A report text uses of simple present tense, for example: Platypus lives in streams, male platypus does not need any burrow, etc
• The language used in a report text is a scientific language, for example: water contains oxygen and hydrogen, etc.
• A report text uses Conditionals and logical connectives, such as: but, in other hand, etc.

Differences between Report Text and Descriptive Text
Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Such a report and a descriptive text have the similarities in the social function and generic structure. However, if they are analyzed carefully, the slight difference between the two text types will reveal.
The purposes of the two texts are to give the live description of the object/participant. Both of a report and a descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. What makes different, between report and descriptive text is the scope of the written object. If we talk about, e.g.: bicycle, it belongs to a report text. It will talk about bicycle in general in terms of its parts, physical strength, and function for certain people or other general characters of bike. In the other hand, descriptive text will convey more focus, for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters, such as: color, length, wheel style, etc.
In short, a report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature, animal and scientific object. Mostly, a report is written after getting careful observation. This scientific and technical sense makes clearer difference from descriptive text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. It describes the specific thing simply as the thing is.

Example of a Report Text
          Venice is a city in northern Italy. It is the capital of region Veneto. Together with Padua, the city is included in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area. Venice has been known as the “Queen of the Adriatic”, “City of Water”, “City of Bridges”, and “The City of Light”. The city stretches across 117 small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy.
          Venice is world-famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of 117 islands formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot.
You can ride gondola there. It is the classical Venetian boat which nowadays is mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies. Now, most Venetians travel by motorized waterbuses (“vaporetti”) which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city’s islands. The city also has many private boats. The only gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges.
            You can see the amusing city’s landmarks such as Piazza San Marco, Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo, Saint Mark’s Cathedral or villas of the Veneto. The villas of the Veneto, rural residences for nobles during the Republic, are one of the most interesting aspects of Venetian countryside. They are surrounded by elegant gardens, suitable for fashionable parties of high society. The city is also well known for its beautiful and romantic view, especially at night.